Genomics is the study of the gene and its functions and proteomics is the study of the structure and functions of proteomes or sets of proteins by using molecular biology and bioinformatics tools and technology. Genomics involves the mapping of genes and DNA sequencing to understand the structure and functions of genomes. A proteome is a complete set of proteins expressed by a genome at a certain time. Proteomics primarily involves the use of molecular biology, biochemistry, and genetics to analyze proteins produced by genes through the translation process. Proteins are the primary component of all cells and are responsible for the various functional characteristics of cells. A defect in the genome or proteome structure or function could result in disorders. Thus, genomics and proteomics technologies play an important role in research, drug discovery, and disease diagnosis, which require the identification and study of the defective genome or proteins. It requires various instruments, reagents, and software for protein isolation, purification, identification, quantification, and analysis of the genome and proteome. There are several analytical instruments used for genomics and proteomics, but the instruments most widely used are chromatography systems, mass spectrometers, Polymerase Chain Reaction systems, and Next-generation Sequencing systems.