These can be altered by external stimuli, such as moisture, temperature, electromagnetic field, and pressure to obtain the desired functional effects. In addition, these materials are dynamic in nature and respond to their immediate interaction environments by adapting their characteristics. Advancements in the materials science sector resulted in the development of materials for specific applications, which was previously not possible with the use of conventional materials, such as polymers/plastics, metals, glass, and ceramics. Smart materials are capable of working at a very basic functional level, such as temperature and can be used in very complex technical systems by incorporating additional functionalities and properties. For instance, smart materials can be used in energy supply systems for microelectronic components.