3PL is the outsourcing of logistics and distribution activities by companies to logistics solution providers known as 3PL providers. A 3PL provider is a company to which shippers (customers that transport goods using 3PL services) outsource a part or all the supply chain management (SCM) functions of their logistics services. A 3PL provider plays a significant part in handling customer logistics requirements and performs transportation, location tracking, and sometimes product consolidation activities. Thus, 3PL providers typically specialize in transportation, warehousing, and integrated operation services, which they customize according to their customers' needs. Often, 3PL providers go beyond logistics and provide value-added services such as inventory management, cross-docking, door-to-door delivery, and the packaging of products. They also provide strategic and operational value to many shippers worldwide. Currently, 3PL improves logistics effectiveness by introducing new and innovative ways to manage the SCM.